An example of Roman ingenuity in the Cotswolds.

The Roman Empire was one of the largest ever created by a tribe of people from a City. At its height, its Borders ran from The Antonine Wall between Modern Glasgow and Edinburgh, in the North all the way down to the Dead Sea in Modern Israel.  This massive area of land spanned most of Western Europe and all around the Mediterranean  Sea. They brought War and Conquest, which is undisputed, but they also brought diplomacy, new ideas, technologies and social thinking that included Law and a degree of the democratic process with them as well. They rejected Kings in favour of Senators and Emperors. The Romans laid the foundations for the modern world.

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It is a testament to their achievements that we are still able to see their legacy to this day. From Turkey to Toledo in Spain, from Northumbria in the North of England to  Egypt, there are examples of the built heritage that they left behind. Over the years, much of it has fallen into despair. Neglected by the people following the Roman influence, their cities and outer dwellings were shunned and demolished to put the Romans’ dressed stone to other buildings. However, the remains of the Roman power can be found in some of the most unlikely places.

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Some 22 miles away from the old Roman Town of Corinium, or Cirencester as it is known now, lies the Villages of Chedworth and Yanworth. A gamekeeper was wandering the woods and took a shot at a rabbit. He missed, and the exploded earth threw up some small colour stone blocks. He took the stones to the Lord of the Manor, who recognised them as being tessare from a Roman mosaic. Instructing the Gamekeeper to show him where this happened, the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeology Society was summoned. The site was soon cleared and excavated using the estate workers to reveal a set of near-complete mosaics and walls. Inadvertently, a 3rd Century Roman Villa had been discovered.

In an unusual move for the time, this was the age of the Victorian grave robbers and treasure seekers; after all, the mosaics were left in situ. In most cases, when a mosaic was discovered, it was levered up and taken to a museum in a large town. Something this size would ordinarily have ended up in the Britsh Museum in London. However, given the scale of the site, it was decided that future visitors should be able to enjoy them in the setting they were initially made. The fact that there was a Victorian hunting lodge already built there made no difference, of course!

Over the years, more and more of the site has been uncovered. It was becoming clear that this was a Villa built for luxury and comfort. Several bathhouses were discovered, a water shrine and a working latrine too. This last addition was so advanced even an expert in Drain Lining Surveys like Wilkinson Environmental would be impressed by it.

Four Ways That Men’s Fashion Has Changed in the Last Century

It can seem that men’s fashion never changes that much, and yet delve a little deeper and there are some fundamental differences between what men wear today and what they would have worn 100 years ago.

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From Formal to Casual

Much of the 20th century was taken up with a gradual shift from the formal to the casual. The top hat, for example, toppled as frock coats made way for leisure suits. Nothing indicates this move more than headwear fashions. As the top hat left the everyday arena, it made way for the likes of the pork-pie, trilby, fedora, derby, boater, and homburg. Today, the most popular headwear choice for men is the super-casual baseball cap.

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From Society Members to Individuals

Another major way that fashion has changed is the way in which what a man wears today is far more likely to display his individuality than it is to highlight his social status. This was far from the case in days gone by, when what a man more was often directly related to his class and occupation.

The Demise of the Tie

Until very recently, ties were a major part of many men’s fashion ensemble. Today, however, there are plenty of males who have never worn one – even for formal occasions such as weddings and funerals. They are just as likely to wear their favourite Lyle & Scott t-shirts from as they are a crisp white shirt and tie.

The tie was once one of the major symbols of the business culture of the 20th century, but its popularity – or perceived necessity – has been dying off for years and, in many quarters, it has become another casualty of the Covid 19 pandemic.

The Death of the Work and Leisure Split

This is another trend that has come into sharp focus as a result of the increase in working from home, but it would be unfair to say that the coronavirus virus described at is wholly responsible.

There has been a growing trend for workers to wear what would once have considered to be weekend wear on any day of the week. Today, some executives are actively encouraged to wear less formal attire, as it is considered good business sense to look relaxed, open-minded and flexible.

Key Retirement Planning Steps

Important retirement planning steps include understanding your needs, financial planning for your future and investing in assets that will support you when you retire. By creating a detailed income and expense plan based on your current level of income, you will know exactly what it will cost you to maintain your lifestyle during your later years.

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The next step is prioritizing your plans. Begin to divide up all of your debts into separate funds so that you are only paying interest on the things that you can actually pay off. You can then work on putting aside money each month for the various expenses that you will have, such as housing, utilities and travel. Consider saving by downsizing to Park Homes for Sale in Gloucestershire. For more information, visit www.parkhomelife

Investing in a long-term asset such as a pension should be high on your list of retirement planning goals. If you have a substantial amount of money set aside for retirement, you will have more money in reserve for the various costs associated with living comfortably. Starting to save early in your career can help you meet these financial obligations as early as possible. It is a good idea to also get a budget and learn how to use financial tools, such as the financial budgeting software offered by many reputable financial institutions.

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Understanding your needs is the first step to building a secure retirement. You need to know what it is that you want to do with your money as you get older. While it is important to set aside money each month to supplement your income, it is also crucial to determine which part of your income will be dedicated to your own needs and which can be directed toward investments or other goals. It is important to set realistic goals and evaluate them periodically, but you do not want to get so wrapped up in looking at your goals that you forget to do your regular maintenance to maintain your financial situation. Planning and maintaining your budget is an essential part of your overall retirement planning.

In addition to looking at long-term goals, it is also important to look at the big picture. This includes understanding the tax benefits that you will receive as you reach certain age milestones, such as reaching 65. If you are still working, by all means continue to build your nest egg, but if that is not possible consider the option of taking advantage of retirement benefits to supplement your income or even start a new business.

One of the most important keys to retirement planning is to never put it off. When you’re younger, it feels like that time will never come and you can afford to wait. However, that time will come and you will need to have financial security as well as peace of mind. You want to make sure that you are financially secure before you spend your last working years working hard at what you love. That way, retirement can be savoured and enjoyed.


Where to source used agricultural vehicles

If you are looking for a way to make your farm more profitable then you will want to look into purchasing a range of useful agricultural vehicles. One of the best ways to find out what vehicles are selling is to check out a specialist auction site. An agricultural auction is a good place to start because there are many different types of vehicles that you can view at any given time. There are also many different sellers that you can find and speak with so it makes it easier to find a potential deal.

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Another option is to look online at auction websites that you can check out in order to find the right vehicle for your farm. By using these options you should be able to find a lot of vehicles that fit your needs as well as price ranges. It is important to remember that the price range can be very different depending on the size and application of the vehicle. You will need to keep all of these factors in mind when choosing the right type of vehicle to purchase. For information on Trailer Parts for agricultural vehicles, visit

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Some other things to take into consideration when looking for different agricultural vehicles is what you plan on storing them in. Some vehicles can only be transported by forklift while others can be stored in a trailer or a small building for easy access. A third option is to hire storage facilities to keep them contained. If you plan on storing them indoors then you might want to look into purchasing a small storage building for them.


Three Things to Help Lift the Winter Blues

As winter has arrived once again, many people can feel a little low and start to miss the long summer days already. But at this time of the year there are plenty of things that can be done, to help you through the winter months as well as to bring you joy throughout these darker days. Here are some ideas of things to do this winter…

Go and Forage for your Christmas Decorations

Creating your own Christmas decorations is so much fun and it is also a great opportunity to get out and enjoy the wintery woodlands. Although the summer flowers are now over, the woodlands are still alive with life that you can use for festive wreaths – holly, ivy and of course mistletoe are all abundant at this time of the year and will bring festive cheer to your home.

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Take Care of the Home =- On the subject of your home, this is a time to take some care of it – clear leaves from the gutters and check that your heating is in good working order before the cold weather really sets in – make sure that you get a professional such as this boiler repair Belfast based company Belfast gas in to make repairs to it, do not attempt it yourself.

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Plant Bulbs for the Spring – For something to look forward to, now is the time to start planting your spring bulbs. Narcissi, Crocus and Snowdrops are all lovely flowers to put in that wil bloom early in the spring bringing with them the promises of warmer days to come.

Why Do Forklift Trucks Need Special Training to Use?

When you hear the word forklift, do you automatically imagine busy warehouses and forklifts rushing about picking up pallets? If so, it’s time to learn a little bit about forklift operations. The truth is forklifts are an essential part of warehouse operations and although these machines are able to lift huge quantities of material, they also need some basic training in order to use it properly. Forklift companies and facilities require their employees to undergo special training because it would not be safe for the equipment to be used unsupervised.

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If you want to work as a forklift operator, you must be certified first. It doesn’t matter whether you’re new to manual handling or have been working in warehouses for many years. To ensure your safety, your company will require you to take a training course. This course will cover the basics of the machines, such as how to load and unload them. Aside from that, the course also includes lessons on the different types of the machines and how to operate them properly. For details on Pallet Trucks, visit a site like

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Aside from the safety issue, special training is needed because forklift operators must know how to maneuver their machines around the warehouse. If the warehouse isn’t structured and organized, the positioning of the forklifts can become a problem. With no prior experience, it would be hard for beginners to know where to place the machines and how to get it to work properly and safely. Without training, you may have a very dangerous situation on your hands, especially in a busy setting with lots of other workers and machinery.


Skills you need to work in the care industry

Working in the care industry can be incredibly rewarding and there are lots of Care Jobs Gloucester easy from companies like that will give you the opportunity to work with different people, who need very degrees of care support. There are a number of qualifications that you can undertake whilst working in care and a number of skills and qualities that you need to have to make the most out of your career.

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Here are some of them for you to have a look through.

Respectful – when helping individuals with daily tasks, which can include helping them to bathe and wash it’s incredibly important that you are respectful of them and their needs.

Friendly – in some cases you might be the only person that the individual needing care support sees on an average day so being friendly makes all the difference. It also helps to build up trust.

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Reliable – some of the individuals that need care will need to have medications at specific times of the day so it is important that you are reliable and punctual.

Good communicator – along with being friendly, your communication skills needs to be good. Not only does this help to build relationships with your clients but it also helps them understand you clearly. This is especially important when working with individuals who may be hard of hearing, have learning difficulties or live with dementia.

How to avoid exercise related injuries

Exercise is highly beneficial, this is no secret. However, without approaching exercise with proper consideration and warm ups, it is easy to injure yourself. When dealing with an injury, it’s important to rest until fully recovered. Here are some tips for avoiding injury while exercising:

  • Warming Up

Before starting any form of exercise, it is essential to stretch and warm up the muscles and joints. Going straight into strenuous exercise can lead to pulled or torn muscles, strains or sprains. For those who haven’t exercised in a while, this warming up is even more important to ease the body back into exercise. Strains and sprains are the most common exercise related injury. For gym workers, consider the benefits of First aid at work Cheltenham from Tidal Training Direct

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  • Footwear

The right footwear will offer comfort and support. Try to avoid exercising in new trainers without wearing them a little first or they could rub and lead to blisters. Shoes should have a strong grip and sports socks are a good choice to avoid chafing and rubbing.

  • Hydration

Staying hydrated is very important when exercising. Small amounts often are recommended as there is a nasty condition caused by consuming too much fluid too quickly, called hyponatremia. Regular small amounts are better for the body than large quantities in one go, particularly for long distance running.

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  • Wear the right clothes

For comfort, wearing the right clothing is essential. Dress for the temperature too and choose clothes that don’t cause chafing. As you exercise you will get hot but remember that the body cools down quickly afterwards so be sure to cover up.

How to prevent frozen pipes in the winter.

With autumn in full swing and winter not far behind the colder weather will soon be upon this. This weather can bring about lots of different issues for elements in your home such as the pipes that bring water to and from your home and also those that bring the gas supply to your heater.

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When the temperature begins to drop the water in the pipe starts to freeze, this then expands in the pipe and causes them to break and rupture. The expanding ice inside the pipes can then cause pressure to be built up further down the pipe and at the pipe joints. The cold wind that often accompanies the winter weather can also play a part in freezing pipes. The cold wind can actually speed up the process of water beginning to freeze in the pipes in the first place.

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There is one quick and easy way that you can help to keep the water in your pipes running smoothly throughout winter.

Pipe protectors – these not only help to keep the cold wind and snow away from your pipes but they can also protect them from accidental damage. You can find some great pipe protectors from meterbox. You can also use pipe insulation for the interior pipes in your home to help protect them from the cold air that can circulate in your home.

How does massage work?

When people receive a massage, it causes physiological changes in the body to take place. Firstly, there is a relaxation response which is a natural reaction of the nervous system to touch and certain massage techniques. Secondly, there are mechanical reactions which occur when pressure is applied to the soft tissues of the body. These responses result in physical and emotional benefits.

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During a massage the pleasing pressure helps the body to elicit a relaxation response that includes heart, breathing and blood pressure rates slowing, muscles ease their tension and the production of stress hormones also decreases. Serotonin levels rise and this is a chemical that makes the body feel good. This relaxation response may also lead to a decrease in the risk of stress-induced illness like hypertension, insomnia, anxiety and digestive problems. For help with Mobile Massage London, visit a site like

The mechanical responses that the body elicits include improving the circulation of the blood and lymph systems and the healing of tissues like tendons, muscles and other connective tissue. The benefits of improved circulation include more oxygenated blood getting to organs and an increase in the nutrients that go to muscle cells, for example. This can help with reducing inflammation and ridding the body of excess waste products.

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Massage can help to lower painful contractions and spasms in muscles, as well as reducing nerve compression. You might not think that internal organs can benefit much from soft tissue massage but organs often share pain pathways with nerves, muscles and bones.